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Aromatherapy

A Brief Guide to
Essential Oils & Aromatherapy

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Essential Oils are the highly concentrated essences of aromatic plants that have an immediate impact on our sense of smell, (known as ‘olfaction’). When oils are inhaled the olfactory receptor cells are stimulated and the impulse is transmitted to the limbic system, this being the emotional centre of the brain. The art of using these oils to promote body and mind well-being is known as Aromatherapy.




Aromatherapy
oils are obtained from various parts of plants such as the bark, leaves,

 



Extraction relates to the type of method used to obtain the oils from the various plants.

 






Notes
is the term used to describe the rate at which the oils evaporate, or how long the fragrance will
last. There are three categories of classification, top note, middle note and base note.

Top Notes
are strongly scented but the aroma only lasts approximately 3-24 hours.
Examples of Top Note oils are Basil, Bergamot, Cajeput, Cinnamon, Eucalyptus, Grapefruit, Hyssop, Lemongrass

Middle Notes last anywhere between 2 – 3 days and affect the metabolic and body functions.
Examples of Middle Note oils are Bay, Black Pepper, Cardomom, Chamomile, Cyprus, Fennel, Geranium, Juniper, Lavender, Marjoram, Nutmeg, Nutmeg, Tea Tree.


Base Notes
Are the slowest oils to evaporate and can last up to one week. Examples of Base Note oils are Clove, Cedarwood, Ginger, Jasmin, Frankincense, Patchouli, Rosewood, Rose, Sandalwood, Vetiver, Ylang Ylang





General Safety Information
Essential oils should never be taken internally. Do not apply undiluted essential oils, absolutes, CO2s or other concentrated essences onto the skin. If you are pregnant, epileptic, have liver damage, have cancer, or have any other medical problem, use oils only under the proper guidance of a qualified aromatherapy practitioner. Use extreme caution when using oils with children and give children only the gentlest oils at extremely low doses. It is safest to consult a qualified aromatherapy practitioner before using oils with children. A skin patch test should be conducted prior to using an oil that you've never used before.




Examples of oils that should be avoided

There is little scientific research to support most of the items listed below.

Alcohol - avoid Clary Sage

 

Breastfeeding - avoid Mint, parsley, sage and jasmine (which inhibits milk production in lactating mothers).

 

Driving or using machinery - avoid Clary Sage and vetiver

 

Epilepsy - avoid Fennel, hyssop, rosemary and sage.

 

High Blood Pressure - avoid Cypress, eucalyptus, ginger, rose, rosemary, sage and thyme.
 

Low Blood Pressure - avoid Clary sage, lavender, lemon, marjoram and ylang-ylang.

 

Pregnancy - avoid - Basil, cedarwood atlas, cinnamon leaf, citronella, clary sage, juniper      berry, marjoram, myrrh, nutmeg, rosemary, thyme
 

 



Application Suggestions
using Essential Oils 


Skin Care:

Facial Steam: Add 3-6 drops of oil in warm water putting a tent towel over your head to capture the steam, or use in a facial steamer.

Facial Masque: Add 3-5 drops of oil to your favourite facial masque.

Facial Oil Blend: Add between 3-4 drops of essential oil to your favourite cream or lotion per each individual application.

Dry Brushing: Dry body brushing is a great way to help stimulate your skin and to help improve circulation. Apply 2-4 drops of essential oil to a natural bristle bath brush. Work the brush movements towards your heart starting from your toes. Omit the face and neck.

For sinus or bronchial problems:

Inhalation: Add 3-6 drops of oil in hot water putting a tent towel over your head to capture the steam. Inhale keeping eyes closed. Can be repeated approximately every 4 hours.

Bath:

After filling bath apply up to 6 oils in to water preferably mixed with milk to help oils disperse. Lie back and relax for up to 10 minutes then pat skin lightly dry.

Compress:

To help relieve muscular pain add up to 6 drops of essential oil to a bowl of warm water. Immerse a cloth in to the water, wring out then apply to affected area. Re-apply as often as required.

Shower:

After showering, apply up to 6 drops on to a damp cloth and gently rub over body then allow to air dry.

Bath Salts:

Add up to 6 drops of essential oil to a handful of Epsom Salts (excellent for tired, sore and aching muscles), Sea Salt or Baking Soda. Add directly to a warm bath. Alternatively blend with 10ml (approximately 1 tablespoon) of carrier oil and briskly rub in to skin prior to bath for that all over glow!

 



Ailments and Suggested Oils

ESSENTIAL OILS can effectively treat a variety of physical ailments.

To help you discover which oils and combinations are right for you select

from our listing of ailments below.

It is advisable to always seek advice from a professional therapist

 

Ailments Suggested Oils
 

A
Aches Black Pepper/Niaouli/Nutmeg/Peppermint/Sage/Tea Tree/Cypress
Acne Bergamot/Camphor/May Chang/Orange/Patchouli/Tea Tree
Allergies Camomile Roman
Alopecia Cedarwood
Anorexia Coriander/Clove Bud
Antidepressant Bergamot/Cypress
Anti-Inflammatory Chamomile Roman
Anxiety Chamomile Roman/Lime/Marjoram/Mandarin/Patchouli
Aphrodisiac Camphor, Ylang, Ylang
Appetite Poor May Chang
Arthritis Benzoin/Black Pepper/Coriander/Pine Needle
Asthma Basil/Eucalyptus/Pine Needle/Sage
Athlete's Foot May Chang

 

B
Bacteria Tea Tree
Balancing Rosewood
Blood Pressure High Chamomile/ Marjoram/Ylang Ylang
Blood Pressure Low Rosemary/Thyme
Bronchitis Bergamot/Camphor/Cedarwood/Eucalyptus/Fennel/May Chang/Niaouli/Pine Needle
Body Odour Cypress
Boils Niaouli
Bruising Black Pepper/Marjoram

C

Calming Marjoram/Sandalwood
Catarrah Niaouli/Cedarwood/Sandalwood
Cellulite Patchouli/Cypress
Cellular regeneration Cypress
Chicken Pox Bergamot
Chilblains Marjoram
Chills Benzoin/Camphor
Circulation Benzoin/Camphor/Coriander
Colds Citronella/Eucalyptus/Fennel/May Chang/Peppermint/Sage
Cold Sores Bergamot with Tea Tree
Colic Aniseed/Benzoin/Chamomile Roman/Coriander/Fennel/Mandarin/Sandalwood
Comforting Marjoram
Concentration Eucalyptus
Concentration lack of Peppermint
Constipation Orange
Contagious Diseases Cedarwood Virginian
Coughs Camphor/Cedarwood/May Chang/Sage/Sandalwood/Cypress
Courage Fennel
Cuts Benzoin/Niaouli/Sage
Cystitis Bergamot/Pine Needle/Niaouli
 
D
Dandruff Clary Sage/Sage/Cedarwood
Debility Cedarwood
Deodorizer Bergamot/Patchouli/Patchouli
Depression Cedarwood/Cinnamon/Citronella/Clary Sage/Clove Bud/Lime/Mandarin/Patchouli/Sandwood/Ylang Ylang
Dermatitis Sage/Cedarwood
Diarrhoea Coriander/May Chang/Nutmeg/Sandalwood
Digestive Aniseed/Fennel/Lime/Nutmeg
Dysepsia Aniseed/Coriander

E

Eczema (weeping) May Chang
Eczema Sage
Energising Black Pepper
Enlivening Rosewood
Exhaustion Cinnamon/Cedarwood
 

F

Fainting Cinnamon/Cedarwood
Fatigue Lime
Fearful Aniseed/Sandalwood
Fever Sage
Flatulence Aniseed/Black Pepper/Coriander/Clove Bud/Fennel/Mandarin/May Chang/Nutmeg
Fluid retention Patchouli
Frustration Bergamot
Fungal Infections Patchouli

G

Gall Bladder Chamomile Roman
Gastritis Sandalwood
Gout Benzoin/Coriander/Pine Needle
Grief Marjoram
Gum Infections Sage

H

Hair
Greasy Clary Sage
 
Head Lice Tea Tree
Hangovers Marjoram
Hayfever Chamomile Roman
Headaches Eucalyptus/Sage
Herpes Bergamot
Heart Benzoin/May Chang
Heart Warming Marjoram
Hiccups Fennel/Mandarin
Hormonal Imbalances Cypress

I

Insect bites Tea Tree
Indecision Basil
Indigestion Fennel
Infectious diseases Camphor/Peppermint
Infections Citronella/Myrhh/Coriander
Inflammation Peppermint
Influenza Basil/Camphor/Citronnella/Eucalyptus/Lime/Peppermint/Pine Needle
Insomnia Chamomile/Marjoram/Orange
Invigorating Nutmeg

J

Jaundis Sage
Jet lag Grapefruit
Joint problems Camphor

L

Labour Clary Sage/May Chang
Laryngitis Pine Needle/Sage
Leg Pain Peppermint(pain and inflammation) Rosemary (relieves pain and relaxes muscles)
Liver congestion Sage

M

Malarial Fever Basil
Measles Coriander
Menstrual Cramps Marjoram/May Chang
Menstural Cycle Regulator Fennel
Mental fatigue Basil/Peppermint/Pine Needle
Migraine Coriander
Mind Aniseed/Basil/Black Pepper/Nutmeg
Muscular Black Pepper/Coriander
Muscle Relaxant Camphor
Muscular Spasm Marjoram

N

Nausea Fennel/Coriander/Nutmeg
Nervous Disorders Basil/Bergamot/Clary Sage
Nervous Exhaustion Sage/Coriander
Neuralgia Coriander

P

Paranoia Clary Sage
Perspiration Citronella/Sage
Piles Coriander
PMS Chamomile Roman/Clary Sage/Vetivert
Prostate Pine Needle
Psorisis Cedarwood

R

Refreshing Lime/Mandarin
Relaxing Orange
Respiratory Aniseed/Marjoram/May Chang/Niaouli
Rheumatism Benzoin/Coriander/Marjoram/Nutmeg/Pine Needle

S

Scalp disorders Patchouli
Sciatica Pine Needle
Sedative Mandarin/Ylang Ylang
Shingles Bergamot
Sinus congestion Basil/Eucalyptus/Niaouli/Peppermint

Smoking - to assist you when stopping Sandalwood/Orange/Chamomile/ Eucalyptus/ Fennel/ Marjoram/Grapefruit

Sprains Marjoram
Spider Veins Cypress
Stimulating Clove Bud/May Chang/Niaouli/Nutmeg
Stress Marjoram/Sage
Stretch Marks Mandarin
Sweet Cravings Grapefruit

SKIN

Aged Rosewood
Chapped Benzoin
Congested Lime
Deep Cracks May Chang/Patchouli
Dehydrated Sandalwood/Tea Tree
Dry Rosewood/Orange/Tea Tree/Ylang Ylang
Inflammed Benzoin/Rosewood/Camphor/Sandalwood
Irritated Benzoin/Orange/Peppermint/Tea Tree
Itching Peppermint/Sandalwood
Oily Bergamot/Camphor/Cedarwood/Citronella/Lime/May Chang/Sandalwood/Ylang    Ylang/Cypress
Redness Peppermint
Sensitive Rosewood
Strength Fennel
Tired looking Vetivert

T

Tension Ylang Ylang
Throat infections Chamomile Roman/Eucalyptus/Lime
Tissue Repair May Chang
Tonic Peppermint
Tonsilitis Bergamot
Toxaemia Eucalyptus

U

Ulcers Eucalyptus
Ulcers Leg Clove Bud
Uplifting Bergamot/Lime/Mandarin/May Chang/NiaouliVomitting/ Nutmeg
 

v
Varicose Veins

W

Warming Marjoram
Warts Cinnamon
Weakness Cinnamon
Whooping Cough Basil/Fennel
Wounds Bergamot/Eucalyptus/May Chang/Niaouli
Wrinkles Fennel/Tea Tree

 


Click here for detailed formation on Carrier Oils






  Detailed Information on Essential Oils

 

ANISEED
Pimpinella anisum

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Originates:

Native to Egypt and Greece

Family:

Apiaceae (Umbelliferae)

Aroma:

Sweet & warm spicy aroma very similar to fennel

Part of plant used:   

Seeds

Description:  

Less than a metre high annual herb that has   delicate leaves and white flowers

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Bay, cedarwood, eucalyptus, dill, fennel, ginger, mandarin, Peppermint, rosemary, spearmint

Indications

BODY
Helps to relieve dyspepsia, colic and flatulence. To help relieve digestive problems blend with peppermint & nutmeg

MIND & SPIRIT
Comforting effect to the mind. Said to be good for introverts, fearful or withdrawn individuals

PRECAUTIONS
Trans-anethole, its major constituent has been known to cause dermatitis – avoid in alleging and inflammatory skin conditions

 

BASIL
Ocimum basilicum
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Originates:

Tropical Asia & Africa

Family:

Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Aroma:

Refreshing, sweet, herbaceous fragrance

Part of plant used:   

Leaves and flowering tops

Description:  

Annual herb, with a powerful aromatic scent

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Bergamot, black pepper, cajeput, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, ginger, hyssop, lavender, lemon, marjoram, neroli, niaouli, rosemary, peppermint, pine, thyme, tea tree

Indications

BODY
Beneficial action on the respiratory system. Relieves sinus congestion, bronchitis, asthma, influenza and whooping cough. In Ayurvedic medicine it is combined with Black Pepper to treat malarial fever

MIND & SPIRIT
Basil is one of the most useful cephalics (stimulating to the mind). Said to clear the head and give the mind strength and clarity. Used for nervous disorders especially those suffering with weakness or indecision

PRECAUTIONS
Avoid using in pregnancy Can cause irritation of the skin.

 



BAY
Laurus nobilis

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Originates:
Southern Europe, Morocco and Spain
Family:
Lauraceae
Aroma:
Similar aroma to cloves or cinnamon, sweet and spicy
Part of plant used:   
Berries and the dried leaves.
Description:  
An evergreen tree up to 20 metres high with glossy, dark leaves, often used as a culinary herb.
Method of extraction:
Distillation
Blends well with
Bergamot, cedarwood, eucalyptus, fennel, ginger, juniper, lavender, lemon, sweet or Spanish marjoram, orange, patchouli, rosemary, thyme, ylang-ylang.

 
BENZOIN
Stryax benzoin

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Originates
Tropical Asia
Family:
Styracaceae
Aroma:
 
Part of plant used:   
Formed when tree trunk is cut
Description:  
A large tropical tree which bears hard shelled flattish fruit about the size of a nutmeg
Method of extraction:
Prepared from the crude using solvents which are then removed
Blends well with
Sandalwood, rose, jasmine, frankincense, myrrh, cypress, juniper, lemon, coriander plus other spice oils.
Indications
 
BODY
Arthritis, gout, rheumatism and poor circulation.
Good for chills, colic coughs and flu.
Beneficial for nervous tension and stress.

Mind and spirit
Said to warm and tone the heart and circulation.
 
Skin & hair
Inflamed and irritated conditions. Also used for cuts and chapped skin.
 
PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-irritant, possible sensitization.

BERGAMOT
Citrus bergamia

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Originates:
Southern Italy.
Family:
Rutaceae
Aroma:
Light, delicate and refreshing. Similar to orange and lemon with a slight floral overtone.
Part of plant used:   
A small yellowish pear shaped fruit.
Description:  
The bergamot tree is primarily cultivated for its valuable essential oil as the fruit is not edible because the pulp is far too sour.
Method of extraction:
Expression
Blends well with
Basil, German and Roman chamomile, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, grapefruit, juniper, jasmine, lavender, lemon, lime, Spanish and sweet marjoram, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, rosemary, rosewood, rose otto, rose absolute, sandalwood, ylang-ylang.
Indications
 
BODY
Bergamot combined with tea tree is useful for treating cold sores, chicken pox and shingles. Aids cystitis. When used as an inhalation it is effective for tonsillitis, bronchitis and tuberculosis. Useful for relieving colic, flatulence and indigestion. Effective antidepressant.
 
Mind and spirit
Its sedative yet uplifting characteristics make it an ideal oil to use for depression and nervous tension. Said to soothe anger and frustration.
 
Skin & hair
Effective deodorizing agent. Ideal for treating wounds, herpes, acne and oily skin conditions.
 
PRECAUTION
Do not use expose skin to sun after use of bergamot which has been found to be phototoxic.

BLACK PEPPER
Pipe nigrum

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Originates
South West India
Family:
Piperaceae
Aroma:
A warm fresh, dry-woody, spicy aroma.
Part of plant used:   
Dried and crushed black peppercorns.
Description:  
A perennial woody vine with heart shaped leaves and small white flowers. The berries turn red to black as they mature. Black pepper is the dried fully-grown unripe fruit.
Method of extraction:
Steam distillation.
Blends well with
Basil, bergamot, cajeput, cypress, eucalyptus, frankincense, geranium, ginger, grapefruit, hyssop, lavender, lemon, sweet and Spanish marjoram, nutmeg, palmarosa, pine, rosemary, sandalwood, tea tree, ylang-ylang.
Indications
 
BODY
Good for muscular aches and pains, tired and aching limbs and muscle stiffness. Aids arthritic aches and pains when applied as a massage. Useful to treat severe bruising when applied as a massage. Expels wind.
 
Mind and spirit
Useful for stimulating the mental faculties and energizing the body.
 
Skin & hair
Effective for dispersing bruises.
 
PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-sensitising, irritant in high concentrations. Use only in moderation.
Excessive use may over-stimulate the kidneys.
 
 
BOIS de ROSE & ROSEWOOD
Aniba Roseodora

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Originates
Brazil
Family:
Lauraceae
Aroma:
floral yet slightly spicy aroma that is sweet and woody.
Part of plant used:   
Tree/wood.
Description:  
Evergreen medium sized tropical tree that has a reddish bark and heartwood.
Method of extraction:
Steam distillation.
Blends well with
Bergamot, cedarwood, frankincense, geranium, lavender, mandarin, neroli, orange, palmarosa, patchouli, petitgrain, rose, rosemary, sandalwood, vetiver, ylang-ylang.
Indications
 
BODY
Has a limited range of therapeutic properties, but makes a useful addition to most bath and massage oils.
 
Mind and spirit
Useful when feeling weary and over-burdened with problems. Has uplifting and enlivening properties which have an overall balancing effect.
 
Skin & hair
Useful for treating aged skin as Rosewood is regarded as a cell stimulant.
Excellent for individuals with dry, sensitive and inflamed skin.
 
PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitising.

 

CAMPHOR
Cinnamomum camphora

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Originates
Japan and Taiwan
Family:
Lauraceae
Aroma:
A sharp pungent odour.
Part of plant used:   
Wood, root stumps and branches.
Description:  
A large evergreen tree with many branches bearing clusters of small white flowers followed by red berries.
Method of extraction:
Steam distillation.
Blends well with
Ylang ylang, orange, mandarin
Indications
 
BODY
Muscle relaxant.
Good for circulation, muscular and joint problems.
Used to aid bronchitis, chills, coughs, flu and infectious diseases.
 
Mind and spirit
 Aphrodisiac
 
Skin & hair
Good for treating acne, inflammation oily conditions and spots.
 Also, reputed to have insect repellent properties.
 
PRECAUTION
White camphor is relatively non-toxic, non-sensitizing and non-irritant.
Use sparingly and completely avoid if pregnant or suffering from epilepsy.
 

CAJEPUT

(also known as White Tea Tree Oil) Melaleuca cajeputi

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Originates

Indonesia

Family:

Myrtaceae               

Aroma:

Camphoraceous medicinal odour. Milder to that of Eucalyptus.

Part of plant used:   

Fresh leaves and twigs.

Description:  

The Cajeput tree grows to a height of 18 m (60 ft). Its narrow, tapering leaves are 5 to 20 cm (2 to 8 in) long. Its flowers are usually creamy white, but may also be pink or purple, and they grow in spikes. Native to Australia.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Citrus, geranium, eucalyptus, ginger, peppermint, rosemary & many others

Indications  

BODY

Traditionally it was used in Australia & Malaysia for its antiseptic & analgesic properties. Useful for respiratory conditions. Often used in athletic massage and after sports preparation. Provides a warm sensation when massaged.
 

Mind and spirit

An excellent oil to help you unwind and lift mood.
 

Skin & hair

Beneficial for oily skin and itchy scalp.  

PRECAUTION

Cajeput is relatively non-toxic, non-sensitizing and non-irritant.
Use sparingly and completely avoid if pregnant or suffering from epilepsy.

 



 

CEDARWOOD CEDARWOOD, VIRGINIAN
Juniperus virginiana

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Originates:

Indonesia, Sri Lanka

Family:

Lauraceae

Aroma:

The bark oil has a sweet, spicy, warm scent, while cinnamon leaf oil is spicy and warm but with a rather harsh smell

Part of plant used:   

Bark or leaf

Description:  

Atropical evergreen tree up to 15 metres high. The bark is removed from the tree when it is between six to eight years old and placed in long strips and left to dry in the sun. The strips are then rolled in to tubes or 'quills' as familiar in the culinary spice.

Method of extraction:

Water or steam distillation

Blends well with

Black pepper, clove, eucalyptuys, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, lavender,lemon, orange, rosemary, tangerine, thyme, tea tree


CHAMOMILE ROMAN
Ormensis nobilis
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Originates:

Italy, France

Family:

Asteraceae (Compositae)

Aroma:

Fruity warm herbaceous fragrance

Part of plant used:   

Flower heads

Description:  

Small perennial herb with feathery leaves and daisy white flowers which are larger than that those of German chamomile. The plant has an apple-like scent

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Bergamot, clary sage, geranium, lavender, lemon, sweet marjarom,neroli, orange, rose absolute or otto, rosewood, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Indications

BODY
Useful oil for women with PMS and irregular periods, best used in bath or massage oil. Good for stomach, gall bladder and throat infections. Use a moist warm or hot compresse for children suffering from colic. Inhaled it relieves emotional anxiety, hayfever and other allergies.

MIND & SPIRIT
Mild sedative for children resulting in a calming but not depressing effect.

Skin & hair
Roman chamomile has anti-inflammatory properties, while German chamomile oil is preferred in skin care

PRECAUTIONS
Non-toxic,non-irritant and non-sensitising


CINNAMON
Cinnamomum zeylanicum

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Originates:

Indonesia, Sri Lanka

Family:

Lauraceae

Aroma:

The bark oil has a sweet, spicy, warm scent, while cinnamon leaf oil is spicy and warm but with a rather harsh smell

Part of plant used:   

Bark or leaf

Description:  

Atropical evergreen tree up to 15 metres high. The bark is removed from the tree when it is between six to eight years old and placed in long strips and left to dry in the sun. The strips are then rolled in to tubes or 'quills' as familiar in the culinary spice.

Method of extraction:

Water or steam distillation

Blends well with

Black pepper, clove, eucalyptuys, frankincense, ginger, grapefruit, lavender,lemon, orange, rosemary, tangerine, thyme, tea tree

Indications

BODY
Regarded as one of the strongest antiseptic oils therefore good for preventing infectious and contagious diseases.

MIND & SPIRIT
When inhaled cinnamon is excellent for feelings of depression, exhaustion, fainting, weakness and debility.

Skin & hair
Traditionally used in clearing warts.  Not recommended for use in skin care.

PRECAUTIONS
Leaf oil is relatively non-toxic. Cinnamon bark oil should never be used on the skin as it is considered a dermal toxin, irritant and sensitiser.


CITRONELLA

Cymbopogea Nardus
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Originates:

Sri Lanka

Family:

Poaceae (Gramineae)

Aroma:

A Fresh powerful,lemony fragrance which is yellowy brown in colour

Part of plant used:   

Fresh, part dried or dried leaf

Description:  

A tall, aromatic perennial

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Bergamot, cajeput, cedarwood, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lemon, peppermint, rosemary, sage, tea tree, thyme

Indications

BODY
Commonly used as an insect repellent. When inhaled it helps fight against colds, flu and minor infections. Deodorising properties make it excellent for refreshing tired sweaty feet, activating the whole body.

MIND & SPIRIT
Due to Citronella's uplifting properties it is beneficial for easing feelings of depression.

Skin & hair
Traditionally used for combating oily skin and excessive perspiration.

PRECAUTIONS
May cause dermatitis in some individuals.


 

CLOVE BUD

Cymbopogea Nardus
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Originates:

Sri Lanka

Family:

Poaceae (Gramineae)

Aroma:

A Fresh powerful,lemony fragrance which is yellowy brown in colour

Part of plant used:   

Fresh, part dried or dried leaf

Description:  

A tall, aromatic perennial

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Bergamot, cajeput, cedarwood, eucalyptus, geranium, lavender, lemon, peppermint, rosemary, sage, tea tree, thyme


CLARY SAGE
Salvia sclarea

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Originates

France,Russia

Family:

Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Aroma:

A heavy,nutty, fruit-floral-herbaceous fragrance

Part of plant used:   

Flowering tops and foliage

Description:  

A perennial herb up to 1 metre high or a short biennial with large, hariy leaves and small purple or blue flowers

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Bergamot, cedarwood, German & Roman chamomile, frankincense, geranium, jasmine, lavender, sweet marjoram, neroli, orange, rosewood, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Indications

BODY
Eases PMS, helps to regulate scanty periods and painful cramps in lower back. Encourages labour.

MIND & SPIRIT
Valuable oil for treating nervousness, weakness, fear, paranoia and depression.

Skin & hair
Helps to reduce excessive production of sebum so good for clearing greasy hair and dandruff.

PRECAUTIONS
Avoid during pregnancy.


 

CORIANDER
Salvia sclarea

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Originates

France,Russia

Family:

Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Aroma:

A heavy,nutty, fruit-floral-herbaceous fragrance

Part of plant used:   

Flowering tops and foliage

Description:  

A perennial herb up to 1 metre high or a short biennial with large, hariy leaves and small purple or blue flowers

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Bergamot, cedarwood, German & Roman chamomile, frankincense, geranium, jasmine, lavender, sweet marjoram, neroli, orange, rosewood, sandalwood, ylang-ylang

Cypress
Cypressus sempervirens

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Originates

Eastern Meditterrean

Family:

Cupressaceae

Aroma:

Sweet, fresh and

Part of plant used:   

Young twigs and needles of the tree.

Description:  

Evergreen tree with pointed leaves and white,red or green flowers. The flexible trunk has a white spongy bark that flakes off easily.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Bay, benzoin, bergamot, cardamom, cedar-wood, clary sage, frankincense, juniper, lavender, lemon, mandarin, marjoram, orange, sandalwood.

Indications

BODY
A great comfort for aching limbs and stress-induced fatigue. The oil is very refreshing when used in a bath or massage. Cypress baths will also benefit those suffering from haemorrhoids, bladder irritation and relieve colds. A Cypress oil massage is believed to relieve excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia) and associated pains. Good also for circulation. Aids hormonal imbalances. Often used to control body odour.

MIND & SPIRIT
Stimulating, uplifting and refreshing. Excellent anti-depressant.

Skin & hair
Astringent and toning. Excellent cellular regeneration oil. Cypress oil also has antiseptic properties. Beneficial for oily skin when used in facial massage, or in steam. Soothing and deodorizing in a footbath and beneficial for catarrhal coughs and bronchitis when used in steam inhalation. Helps to reduce varicose and spider veins

PRECAUTIONS
Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitising when diluted.

EUCALYPTUS (blue gum)
Eucalyptus globulus

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Originates

Australia

Family:

Myrtaceae

Aroma:

Camphorous odour with a woody sweet undertone.

Part of plant used:   

Fresh leaves and cones

Description:  

A tall evergreen tree with a statuesque conical shape which bears small flowers and round brownish-grey cones or nuts.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Aniseed, basil, cajeput, cedarwood, citronella, frankincense, ginger, hyssop, juniper, lavender, lemon, sweet and Spanish marjoram, myrtle, niaouli, pine, peppermint, rosemary, spearmint, tea tree, thyme.

Indications

BODY
Traditional remedy for asthma, bronchitis, colds, flu, throat and sinus infections, rheumatism and headaches.

MIND & SPIRIT
Refreshing and stimulating Eucalyptus assists concentration.

Skin & hair
Good for toxaemia or sepsis, wounds and ulcers.

PRECAUTIONS
Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitising. Toxic when taken internally.

 

FENNEL SWEET
Foeniculum vulgaris

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Originates

Grows in Mediterranean countries

Family:

Umbelliferae

Aroma:

Camphorous odour with a woody sweet undertone.

Part of plant used:   

Crushed seeds

Description:  

A perennial or biennial herb approximately 2 metres high that has feathery leaves and golden yellow flowers.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Basil, clary sage, cypress, geranium, grapefruit, juniper, lavender, lemon, peppermint, rosemary, rose, sandalwood.

Indications

BODY
Warming and drying according to traditional Chinese and Galenic medicine. Good for digestive problems, relieves nausea, colic, hiccups, flatulence and indigestion.
Useful in regulating the menstrual cycle.
used in cold conditions and bronchitis and also whooping cough.

MIND & SPIRIT
Believed to give courage and strength in adversity.

Skin & hair
Due to Fennels oestrogenic properties it is said to be useful in skincare, helping to minimise the effects of wrinkles.
Considered sensitising to the skin so care must be taken.

PRECAUTIONS
Relatively non-toxic, non-irritant. Can cause sensitisation in some people.
Avoid during breast feeding and for those who suffer from epilepsy.

FRANKINCENSE
Buswellia thurifera

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Originates

Middle East

Family:

Burseraceae

Aroma:

Sweet woody, lemony / fruity aroma

Part of plant used:   

Bark

Description:  

 

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation from the oleo gum resin

Blends well with

Benzoin, sandalwood, lavender, myrrh, pine, orange, bergamot and lemon.

Indications

BODY
Frankincense oil can be used in a blended massage oil or diluted in the bath for colds, coughs, bronchitis, rheumatism, chilliness, poor circulation, exhaustion, nightmares, heavy periods, respiratory problems and mucus congestion.

Mind and spirit
Traditionally used in meditation. Helps to slow down and deepen breathing.

Skin & hair
Believed to rejuvenate aging skin.

PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising when diluted.

GERANIUM & ROSE GERANIUM
Pelargonium graveolens

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Originates

South Africa

Family:

Geraniaceae

Aroma:

Floral, fresh, sweet, with a fruity note.

Part of plant used:   

Stalks and leaves of the perennial shrub.

Description:  

A perennial plant that grows up to 3ft tall.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Eucalyptus, lavender, clary sage, rose, lime, orange, frankincense, grapefruit and ylang ylang

Indications

BODY
Believed by many in aromatherapy to be one of the most important oils due to Geraniums versatility. It is used to treat many ailments including sore throats and tonsillitis, menopausal symptoms and bruising.

Mind and spirit
A popular oil used for stress.

Skin & hair
Eczema, oily dull skin, dermatitis, acne and cellulite. Excellent for treatment of lice when diluted with shampoo.

PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising. Must not be used during pregnancy.

 

GINGER
Zingiber officinalis

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Originates

South East Asia

Family:

Zingiberaceae

Aroma:

Earthy, spicy, woody, warm and stimulating.

Part of plant used:   

Rhizome (underground stem)

Description:  

Ginger plant is a tropical herbaceous plant that looks like tall grass that grows to 1 metre high.

Method of extraction:

Steam

Blends well with

bergamot, frankincense, neroli, rose, sandalwood and ylang-ylang.

Indications

BODY

Bruises, sores, catarrh, chronic bronchitis, congestion, cough, sinusitis, sore throat, tonsillitis, swollen glands (MDR), dries excess mucous.

Arthritis, fatigue, muscle aches and pains, injury, sprains, strains (lower back); aids rheumatism pain. poor circulation, varicose veins; eases angina (MDR). Chills, colds, flu, fever, infectious disease-raises body temperature.

Toothache, gas in abdomen, diarrhea, colic, cramp, loss of appetite, flatulence, constipation, indigestion, travel sickness, nausea, vomiting, anorexia (MDR), hangover, may lower high cholesteral (?)

Said to regulate menstruation when affected by colds.

Mind and spirit
 
Debility, nervous exhaustion, tiredness, stimulant but grounding, aids memory, warms cold, flat emotions, sharpens senses use for over sensitivity, protection.  activates willpower, and restores determination.


PRECAUTION
Ginger should not be used on people with high blood pressure due to its hypertensive properties. Also, known as a skin irritant and can cause irritation on sensitive skins or people with eczema.

GRAPEFRUIT
Citrus paradisi

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Originates

Asia

Family:

Rutaceae

Aroma:

Sharp refreshing smell

Part of plant used:   

Fresh peel

Description:  

Grapefruit is picked from a glossy-leaved tree, about 10 meters (30 feet) high, with white flowers and large, pale yellow fruit.

Method of extraction:

Cold extraction.

Blends well with

Bergamot, lavender, geranium, palma rosa and frankincense.

Indications

BODY
Valuable to the immune system due to its high content of Vitamin C. Believed to  protect against colds and flu. Also has diuretic properties, helping to remove excess water from the body and is therefore also great for treating cellulite.

Helps to combat muscle fatigue and stiffness while stimulating the lymphatic system and thereby clearing the body of toxins.

Mind and spirit
Grapefruit has an uplifting effect on the mood and helps with stress and depression. Believed to reduce sweet cravings.

Skin & hair
Can help to clear congested oily skin and also assists with acne, while toning the skin and tissues. Grapefruit is used in hair care to promote hair growth.

PRECAUTION
Grapefruit oil is non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitizing and although listed as non-phototoxic, it can irritate the skin if exposed to strong sunlight after treatment.

 

HYSSOP
Hyssopus officinalis

(known as The Holy Oil)

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Originates

Mediterranean area

Family:

Labiatae

Aroma:

Fresh, earthy, fruity, woody, slightly sweet

Part of plant used:   

Leaves and the flowering tops

Description:  

Woody shrub with hairy stem, small lance-shaped green leaves and purple-blue flowers. Grows up to 60 cm (2 feet).

Method of extraction:

Steam

Blends well with

Angelica, Clary sage, Geranium, Orange, Tangerine, Melissa and Rosemary.

Indications

BODY
Good for treating female disorders and to relieve monthly water retention.

Excellent for respiratory problems such as bronchitis, asthma, influenza and colds.

It helps with colic, flatulence and indigestion, while it helps to regulate circulation and is helpful when used to raise low blood pressure.

Mind and spirit

Hyssop oil gives a feeling of alertness and helps with anxiety and fatigue.

 Skin & hair

Used for treating wounds and bruises.

PRECAUTION

Non-irritant and non-sensitizing, but does contain pinocamphone and should therefore be used in moderation and should be avoided during pregnancy and by people suffering from epilepsy and those with high blood pressure.

JUNIPERBERRY
Juniperus communis

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Originates

Italy

Family:

Cupressaceae

Aroma:

Sweet, fresh and woody-balsamic aroma.

Part of plant used:   

Berries

Description:  

The plant is a small bushy shrub or tree, 3-35 feet in height The berries are plucked from the branches of the plant once a year and dried and ground before distillation

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Lavender, Clary Sage, rosemary, geranium, cedarwood and lemon.

Indications 

BODY

Juniper is a detoxifying, strengthening and purifying oil. It may be used for improving lymphatic drainange and circulation, and easing stiff and painful joints. Depression, despondency, insomnia, respiratory problems, aching muscles, acne, skin sores, eczema, rheumatism, hay fever, oedema, water retention.

 Mind and spirit

This crisp essential oil is used in aromatherapy to help stimulate and strengthen the nerves and bolster the spirits in challenging situations

Skin & hair

Good for oily skin, acne, skin sores, eczema. 

PRECAUTIONS

Non-toxic, non-irritant and non-sensitising. Juniper berry essential oil should not be used during pregnancy.

Lavender
Lavendula augustifolia

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Originates

France

Family:

Labiatae

Aroma:

A light fresh aroma Lavender oil is clear in colour and watery in viscosity.

Part of plant used:   

Flowering tops

Description:  

Evergreen woody shrub that grows about a metre high. Beautiful purple-blue flowers are produced on grey-green linear stems.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

All citrus oils, cedarwood, chamomile, clary sage, geranium, pine, nutmeg.

Indications 

BODY

Lavender oil is considered to be the most versatile of oils. One of the few oils that can be used neat on the skin which is beneficial when treating minor burns. Lavender oil revitalizes and tones. Good for all skin complaints eg abscesses, acne, oily skin, boils, burns, sunburn, wounds, psoriasis, lice, insect bites, stings and also acts as an insect repellent. Beneficial when treating muscular aches and pains and problems of the digestive system and many other conditions.

 Mind and spirit

Soothing and calming effect.

PRECAUTIONS

Considered to be one of the safest oils. However, if an allergic reaction should occur discontinue use immediately.

 

LEMONGRASS
Cumbopogon ciprapus

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Originates:

West Indian

Family:

Gramineae

Aroma:

Sweet, fruity aroma.

Part of plant used:   

Partially dried leaves (grass)

Description:  

Grass type plant than can grow up to 3 feet high.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Basil, benzoin, bergamot, black pepper, camomile German, camomile roman, cardamom, cedarwood Virginian, citronella, clary sage, coriander, cypress, elemi, eucalyptus, fennel, frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, ho wood, jasmine, juniper berry, lavender, lemon, lime, mandarin, marjoram, melissa, neroli, orange, patchouli, peppermint, petitgrain, pine needle, ravensara, rose, rosemary, rosewood, tea tree, thyme.

Indications

BODY
Believed to be antifungal, antibacterial, anti-parasitic, anti-inflammatory  Also used to improve circulation and many therapists use it to promote lymph flow.

Used for a large range of conditions such as injury to muscles, ligaments and tendons.Sinus and respiratory conditions, bladder infections, digestive problems, fluid retention and varicose veins. Also used as a natural blood thinner. Headaches and jet lag.

Good for tired aching legs and feet.

****

Lemongrass has deodorizing and disinfectant properties, which make it a good oil for general household cleaning. Add a couple of drops of the essential oil to water and use to clean the home.

MIND & SPIRIT

 Said to rejuvenate the mind improve mental clarity.

PRECAUTIONS
Possible skin irritant in high concentrations ALWAYS DILUTE

 

LEMON
Citrus limomum
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Originates:

India

Family:

Rutaceae

Aroma:

Nearly identical to the freshly peeled fruit.

Part of plant used:   

Peel of the fruit.

Description:  

Evergreen tree up to 6 metres (20 ft) high, highly perfumed pink and white flowers with fruit that turns from green to yellow when ripe.

Method of extraction:

Cold expression.

Blends well with

Lavender, rose, sandalwood, benzoin, eucalyptus, geranium, fennel, juniper, neroli.

Indications  

BODY

 Powerful antiseptic, anti-bacterial and anti-viral properties.  

Often used to treat Athlete's foot, chilblains, colds, corns, flu, varicose veins, warts.

Relives insect bites.  

Mind and spirit

 Lifts our spirits especially when faced with mental fatigue.

  Skin & hair

Dull and oily skin also oily hair. Cellulite and acne.

  PRECAUTION

May cause skin irritation or sensitivity in some also phototoxic so do not expose applied area to sunlight for 24 hours.

 

LIME
Citrus aurantifolia

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Originates

Asia

Family:

Rutaceae

Aroma:

A citrusy fragrance which is fresh and sweet.

Part of plant used:   

Peel of the fruit

Description:  

A small bitter fruit similar to a lemon which grows on a small evergreen tree.

Method of extraction:

Cold expression of the peel of the unripe fruit and steam distillation of the whole ripe fruit.

Blends well with

Bergamot, cedarwood, geranium, grapefruit, lavender, lemon, mandarin, neroli, nutmeg, orange, palmarosa, petitgrain, rose, rosemary, rosewood, tangerine, vetiver, ylang-ylang.

Indications

BODY
Considered a digestive stimulant as are most citrus oils. Useful for treating sore throats and influenza due to its disinfectant properties. The lime oil produced by cold expression also has detoxifying benefits.

Mind and spirit
Refreshing and uplifting. Good for tired minds and fatigue, anxiety and depression.

Skin & hair
Helps to clear oily congested skin.

PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising. Cold expression oil is phototoxic.


MARJAROM (Spanish)
Thymus masticina

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Originates

Spain

Family:

Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Aroma:

A slightly eucalyptus type odour that is warm and penetrating.

Part of plant used:   

Dried flowering herb.

Description:  

A strongly aromatic perennial plant with dark green oval leaves and small reddish-purple flowers gthat grow on a hairy stem up to 60cm high.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Bergamot, black pepper, cajeput, clary sage, eucalyptus, ginger, lavender,lemon, nutmeg, peppermint, roseymary, tea tree, thyme.

Indications

BODY
Beneficial for most respiratory ailments. Used to relieve muscular spasm, rheumatic pains, sprains and strains. Will ease menstrual cramps when as a massage or hot compress over the lower abdomen.

Mind and spirit
Marjorm has a warming and comforting effect on the heart therefore considered useful for conditions relating to grief. Has a calming effect on the nervous system, relieves anxiety and stress. Effective treatment for insomnia.
Place a drop of Majorom Essential Oil behind your ear to relieve hangover headaches and also to balance the central nervous system

Skin & hair
Helps to disperse bruises. Believed to be beneficial for treating chilblains.

PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising. Must not be used during pregnancy.


MANDARIN
Citrus reticulata

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Originates

Produced in Brazil, California, Italy and Spain

Family:

Rutaceae

Aroma:

An intense sweet fresh citrus aroma that is yellow, orange in colour.

Part of plant used:   

Fruit peel

Description:  

A member of the orange family with smaller leaves and fruits.

Method of extraction:

Cold pressed.

Blends well with

Bergamot, German and Roman chamomile, black pepper, grapefruit, jasmine, lavender, lemon,lime, sweet marjoram, neroli, orange, palmarosa, petitgrain, rose, sandalwood, tangerine, ylang-ylang.

Indications

BODY
Considered a mild sedative for the nervous system. Often used for infants suffering from hiccups or colic. Relieves flatulence.

Mind and spirit
Refreshing and uplifting quality often used to eliminate depression and anxiety.

Skin & hair
Often used to prevent stretch marks during pregnancy when blended with neroli and wheatgerm oils.

PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-irritant, non-sensitising. 


MAY CHANG
Litsea cubeba

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Originates

Asia

Family:

Lauraceae

Aroma:

A slightly eucalyptus type odour that is warm and penetrating.

Part of plant used:   

Fruit

Description:  

Belongs to the same family as the rosewood or cinnamon tree. A small tropical tree with fragrant, lemongrass-scented leaves and flowers.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Basil, bergamot, geranium, ginger, jasmine, lavender, lemon, neroli, orange, petitgrain, rose, rosemary, rosewood, ylang-ylang.

Indications

BODY
Heart and respiratory system tonic.

Mind and spirit
Stimulating and very uplifting.

Skin & hair
Useful for the treatment of acne and oily skin due to its tonic and astringent effects on the skin.

PRECAUTION
Non-toxic, non-irritant. Possible sensitising in some individuals.


MYRHH
Commiphora myrrha

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Originates

North east Africa and south west Asia

Family:

Burseraceae

Aroma:

Rich, spicy, warm balsamic odour that is a dark brown oily liquid.

Part of plant used:   

The crude oleoresin

Description:  

Myrrh is derived from Commiphora shrubs which grow up to 10 metres high. The trunk produces a natural oleoresin which is a pale yellow liquid that hardens into reddish brown tears known as myrrh.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Frankincense, lavender, palmarosa, pathcouli, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, tea tree, thyme.

Indications

BODY
Myrrh prevents infection, clears toxins and promotes tissue repair. Stimulates the stomach with its warming properties and is useful for treating diarrhoea, flatulence and poor appetite. Myrrh also stimulates the uterine and promotes menstruation thus relieving painful periods. Often used during prolonged, difficult childbirth labour. Traditionally used to aid coughs, bronchitis and colds.

Mind and spirit
Myrrh is believed to enhance spirituality. Traditionally used as an incense fragrance along with frankincense.

Skin & hair
Used in skin creams for deep cracks on the heels and hands. Excellent aid for wounds that are slow to heal, weepy eczema and athlete's foot.

PRECAUTION
Non-sensitising, non-irritant, possibly toxic in high concentrations. As Myrrh is a uterine stimulant it must not be used in pregnancy.


NIAOULI
Melaleuca viridiflora

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Originates

Austrialia and New Caledonia.

Family:

Myrtaceae

Aroma:

A warm spicy, sweet odour that is pale yellow in colour.

Part of plant used:   

Leaves and young twigs.

Description:  

An evergreen tree that has a flexible trunk and spongy bark, pointed linear leaves with spikes of sessile flowers.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Basil, cajeput, eucalyptus, fennel, juniper, lavender, lemon, lime, myrtle, orange, pine, rosemary, peppermint, tea tree, thyme.

Indications

BODY
Blend with peppermint, eucalyptus, pine and myrtle to treat respiratory conditions. Excellent antiseptic for treating bronchitis, catarrh and sinus. Also used to treat cystitis.

Mind and spirit
Clears the head due to its uplifting and stimulating properties.

Skin & hair
Useful for washing infected wounds. Treating acne, boils, ulcers, burns and cuts.

PRECAUTION
Non-sensitising, non-irritant, non-toxic.


NUTMEG
Myristica fragrans

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Originates

Cultivatedi n Indonesia, Sri Lanka, and the West Indies.

Family:

Myristicaceae

Aroma:

A warm spicy, sweet odour that is pale yellow in colour.

Part of plant used:   

The dried nutmeg seed.

Description:  

An evergreen tree with a greyish-brown smooth bark, dense foliage and small dull-yellow flowers.

Method of extraction:

Steam or water distillation.

Blends well with

Bay, black pepper, cajeput, clary sage, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, lavender, lime, mandarin, orange, peppermint, petitgrain, rosemary, ylang-ylang and most other spice oils.

Indications

BODY
Nutmeg is most useful as a digestive stimulant, assisting people who are unable to assimilate food. Ideal for treating flatulence, nausea, chronic vomiting and diarrhoea. In South East Asia Nutmeg is traditionally used as a tonic for the reproductive system. Helps to regulate scanty periods and eases pain. Beneficial for muscular aches and pains as well as rheumatism due to its warming properties.

Mind and spirit
Nutmeg stimulates and invigorates the mind.

Skin & hair
Not recommended for skin care use.

PRECAUTION
Non-sensitising, non-irritant, generally non-toxic. Must not be used in pregnancy.


ORANGE
Citrus sinensis

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Originates

China and India.

Family:

Rutaceae

Aroma:

Are refreshing and zesty citurs fragrance.

Part of plant used:   

Fresh ripe or almost ripe outer peel.

Description:  

An everygreen tress with fruit which has a sweet pulp and non-bitter membrane.

Method of extraction:

Cold pressed.

Blends well with

Bergamot, cinnamon, clary sage, clove, cypress, frankincense, geranium, jasmine, juniper, lavender, neroli, nutmeg, petitgrain, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, tangerine, ylang-ylang.

Indications

BODY
Similar properties to that of Neroli oil (obtrained from orange blossoms). Used to treat constipation and is also helpful for treating chronic diarrhoea. Orange oil stimulates lymph fluids, making it beneficial to treat swollen tissue.

Mind and spirit
Assists in relaxation. An ideal oil to use as an introduction to aromatherapy. Children tend to love the smell of orange and it is often used to help them sleep.

Skin & hair
Beneficial for treating dry, irritated or acne skin conditions.

PRECAUTION
Non-sensitising, non-irritant, generally non-toxic.


PATCHOULI
Pogospemon cablin

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Originates

China, India, Indonesia and Malaysia

Family:

Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Aroma:

A sweet, rich herbaceous-earth fragrance which improves with age.

Part of plant used:   

Dried leaves.

Description:  

A perennial bushy herb with a sturdy, hairy stem that has large fragrant furry leaves and white flowers.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Bergamot, black pepper, clary sage, frankincense, geranium, ginger, lavender, lemongrass, myrrh, neroli, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, ylang-ylang.

Indications

BODY
Significant deodorising effect. Used in cases of fluid retention and cellulite.

Mind and spirit
Good for dealing with anxiety and depression.

Skin & hair
Helps to stimulate regrowth of skin cells. Assist healing rough, cracked skin, sores and wounds. Beneficial for treating acne, fungal infections and scalp disorders.

PRECAUTION
Generally non-sensitising, non-irritant, non-toxic.


PEPPERMINT
Mentha arvensis

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Originates

USA, Tasmania

Family:

Lamiaceae (Labiatae)

Aroma:

A strong, sharp refreshing menthol fragrance.

Part of plant used:   

Leaves and flowering tops.

Description:  

A perennial herb that grows up to 1 metre high.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation.

Blends well with

Basil, bergamot, cajeput, cedarwood, cypress, eucalyptus, lemon, lime, mandarin, marjoram, niaouli, pine, rosemary, spearmint, thyme.

Indications

BODY
Excellent to use for sinus congestion, infection or inflammation. Beneficial in the treatment of colds and flu.

Mind and spirit
Thought to help people who are unable to concentrate or who have mental fatigue.

Skin & hair
Relieves any form of skin irritation or itching if used in a dilution of 1% or less. Can help reduce skin redness due to inflammation or acne. A very refreshing skin tonic.

PRECAUTION
Generally non-irritant (except in concentration), non-toxic. Use in moderation.


PETITGRAIN
Citrus aurantium

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Originates

China

Family:

Rutaceae

Aroma:

Woody, florally fragrance

Part of plant used:   

Made from the leaves and twigs of the orange blossom tree.

Description:  

This evergreen tree grows up to ten metres high, with glossy dark green oval leaves and spines. It has white fragrant flowers and small fleshy orange fruit when ripe.

Method of extraction:

Steam distilled

Blends well with

Cedarwood , Jasmine ,Lavender , Lemon ,Rose , and Sandalwood

Indications

BODY
 Excessive perspiration. Used for treating insomnia, backache, muscular tension.

Mind and spirit.
Uplifting therefore good for stress,
fatigue and any kind of nervousness.

Skin & hair

Oily skin
 

PRECAUTIONS
It is non-photosensitising like other citrus oils can be.

 

PINE NEEDLES
Pinus sylvestris

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Originates

Northern Europe, North America.

Family:

Pinaceae

Aroma:

A strong turpentine like aroma.

Part of plant used:   

Needles

Description:  

Evergreen tree that grows up to 40 metres high.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Cajeput, cedarwood, cinnamon, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, lavender, Spanish & seet marjoram, myrtle, niaouli, peppermint, rosemary, thyme, tea tree.

Indications

BODY
The antiseptic and expectorant properties of Pine make it use for treating asthma, bronchitis, laryngitis and influenza.

Mind and spirit
Good for mental fatigue when use as inhalation. Promotes feelings of energy and wellbeing. Effective in treating cystitis and prostate problems. Pine's warming properties help to relieve rheumatism, gout, sciatica and arthritis.

Skin & hair
Not used in skin care as it is a dermal irritant.

PRECAUTION
Dermal irritant so best not to use in massage or in baths.


RED THYME
Thymus vulgaris

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Originates

Hungary

Family:

Labiatae

Aroma:

Strong herbal smell and yet quite sweet fragrance.

Part of plant used:   

Fresh or partly dried flowering tops and leaves of the plant

Description:  

An evergreen perennial shrub of the Mint family which grows up to 45 cm (18 inches) high, with a woody root system, much-branched stem, small elliptical greenish gray aromatic leaves and pale purple or white flowers.

Method of extraction:

Water or steam distillation.

Blends well with

Bergamot, Grapefruit, Lemon, Lavender, Rosemary and Pine.

Indications

BODY
 Red Thyme has warming qualities therefore it is said to be beneficial for rheumatism, sciatica, arthritis, gout, muscular aches and pains and poor circulation. Also, sprains and sports injuries.

Also used for bronchitis, coughs, colds and asthma. Believed to be beneficial for cystitis and is also used to speed up birth and to expel afterbirth.

Used also to raise blood pressure.

Boosts the immune system.

Mind and spirit.

Said to assist concentration.

Skin & hair

Can cause skin irritation.

PRECAUTION

Can cause skin irritation. Red Thyme is a very potent oil and should not be used during pregnancy or in cases of high blood pressure

 

SAGE, Spanish
Salvia lavandulaefolia

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Originates

Mountain regions of Spain.

Family:

Lamiaceae (Labiatae).

Aroma:

A fresh-herbaceous, camphorous, slightly pinelike odour.

Part of plant used:   

Leaves.

Description:  

An evergreen shrub, similar to the garden sage with narrower leaves and small purple flowers. the plant has a scent reminiscent of spike lavender.

Method of extraction:

Steam distillation

Blends well with

Cedarwood, citronella, eucalyptus, juniper, clary sage, lavender, pine, rosemary.

Indications

BODY
Useful as an inhalation for asthma, colds, coughs, fever and laryngitis. Used to treat jaundice and liver congestion due to its depurative and digestive properties.

Mind and spirit
Used for headaches, nervous exhaustion and stress related conditions.

Skin & hair
Useful for treating acne, cuts, dandruff, dermatitis, eczema, excessive sweating, gingivitis, gum infections and sores.

PRECAUTION
Non-toxic,non-irritant and non-sensitising. 


SANDALWOOD
Amyris balsamifera

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Originates

Asia

Family:

Santalaceae.

Aroma:

Sweet, exotic, woody aroma.

Part of plant used:   

Timber, inner heartwood.

Description:  

A small, evergreen tree that must be over 30 years old before it is ready for the production of sandalwood oil.

 

Method of extraction:

Steam or water distillation

Blends well with

Basil, bergamot, black pepper, cypress, atlas cedarwood, frankincense, geranium, jasmine, lavender, lemon, myrrh, neroli, orange, palmarosa, rose, vetiver, ylang-ylang.

Indications

BODY
Recommended for treating catarrh and dry coughs. Useful for treatment of chronic and acute diarrhoea, colic and gastritis.

Mind and spirit
Calming effect which helps to reduce tension and confusion. Beneficial for treating nervous depression, fear, stress and a hectic daily lifestyle.

Skin & hair
Good for dehydrated skin. Relieves itching and inflammation. Excellent to use in oily skin conditions.

PRECAUTION
Non-toxic,non-irritant and non-sensitising. 


TEA TREE
Melaleuca alternifolia

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Originates
Australia
Family:
Myrtaceae
Aroma:
A fresh antiseptic aroma.
Part of plant used:   
Leaves and twigs.
Description:  
A small tree or shrub, with needle-like leaves.
Method of extraction:
Steam or water distillation
Blends well with
Cajeput, cinnamon, clove, cypress, eucalyptus, geranium, ginger, juniper, lavender, lemon, mandarin, orange, peppermint, pine, rosemary, thyme.
Indications
 
BODY
Effective against bacteria, viruses and fungi. Use to relieve muscular aches and pains.
 
Skin & hair
Good for acne and pimples when combined with lavender. Head Lice – apply directly to affected parts and leave for half an hour before washing out. Insect Bites – dab on pure Tea Tree oil.
 
PRECAUTION
Non-toxic non-irritant, possible sensitization in some individuals.

VETIVER
Vetivera zizanoides

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Originates
India, Java and Haiti
Family:
Poaceae (Gramineae)
Aroma:
A deep, smoky and earthy fragrance.
Part of plant used:   
Roots.
Description:  
A tall perennial, scented grass.
Method of extraction:
Steam  distillation
Blends well with
Frankincense, geranium, grapefruit, jasmine, lemon. Lavender, patchouli, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, ylang-ylang.
Indications
 
BODY
Often used to treat PMS as Vetivert appears to have an effect on the hormone secretions of oestrogen and progesterone. Therefore, a good choice of oil to select during the menopause.
 
Mind & Spirit
Often referred to as the oil of tranquility
 
Skin & hair
Use for slack or tired-looking skin. Dry, dehydrated or irritated skin. To help prevent and reduce wrinkles.
 
PRECAUTION
Non-toxic non-irritant and non-sensitising.

YLANG-YLANG
Canango odorata

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Originates
Philippines, Madagascar
Family:
Annonaceae (Compositae).
Aroma:
A heavy sweet, floral and exotic fragrance.
Part of plant used:   
Flower.
Description:  
Tall tropical tree with fragrant flowers, which are mauve, pink or yellow. The yellow flowers are considered the best for extraction of oil.
Method of extraction:
Steam  distillation
Blends well with
Bergamot, grapefruit, geranium, jasmine, lavender, lemon, neroli, orange, patchouli, rose, rosewood, sandalwood, tangerine.
Indications
 
BODY
Helps to lower blood pressure due to its sedative properties. Highly beneficial for treating PMS, in particular mood swings.
 
Mind & Spirit
Beneficial for nervous depression and severe tension.
 
Skin & hair
Effective on both oily and dry skin as Ylang-ylang has a balancing effect on sebum.
 
PRECAUTION
Excessive use may lead to nausea and headaches.
Non-toxic non-irritant, possibly sensitizing.





Detailed Information on Carrier Oils


Carrier Oils play a significant role in aromatherapy. They are used to dilute essential oils which are too powerful to be used neat on the skin. A typical aromatherapy treatment consists of 98% carrier oil 2% essential oil.

Carrier oils (or ‘fixed’ oils) do not evaporate and are also known as base oils and vegetable oils and are largely derived from nuts and seeds. An example of an exception would be jojoba oil which is extracted from a leathery-leaved shrub and is actually a liquid wax rather than an oil.

Carrier oils are easily absorbed unlike mineral oil (baby oil) which has larger molecules and acts more as a barrier. Carrier oils have highly therapeutic qualities that are beneficial without the addition of essential oils.


Extraction methods
are either carried out by a process referred to as ‘cold pressed’ or ‘hot extraction’.


The cold pressed extraction is the better of the two methods because it retains all the vitamins, minerals and fatty acids. However, due to the spiralling costs, production tends to be restricted to smaller scale production. The method consists of the seeds or nuts being placed in a horizontal press with a rotating screw and the oil being squeezed out.  Due to the friction caused by this method a certain amount of heat is produced between 70-80 degrees C.

The hot extraction method is similar to the above and produces heat up to temperatures of 200 degrees C which destroys the vital vitamins and fatty acids.


How to choose a carrier oil

This really depends upon personal choice, properties of a particular oil and your individual needs.

Refer to below charts below.


 

APRICOT KERNEL
Prunus armeniaca

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Good Source of:

Rich in vitamins and minerals.

Texture:

Light, semi-oily texture makes this oil helpful in massage blends.

Characteristics:

Pale yellow

Body:

Can be used as a light massage oil as it is easily absorbed. Good for all skin types, especially sensitive or dry, dehydrating, maturing skin 

Skin:

Good oil for face, beauty treatments and all skin types, especially sensitive or dry, dehydrating, maturing skin 

Precautions:

Should be refrigerated after opening


AVOCADO
Persia americana

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Good Source of:

Essential fatty acids, Vitamins A, B, E and beta carotene, minerals and protein.

Texture:

Penetrates easily

Characteristics:

Rich, dark green (unrefined).

Light yellow with few nutrients and little odour (refined).

Body:

See precautions.

Skin:

Good for dermal regeneration.

Beneficial for aging, dry, dull, dehydrated and eczema.

Precautions:

Best to blend with other oils such as sweet almond 10-25% otherwise it may overpower a blend.


CALENDULA
Calendula officinalis

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Good Source of:

This is an infused oil containing the active principles of the marigold flower, Calendula officinale

Texture:

 

Characteristics:

It has anti-inflammatory, anti-spasmodic qualities and blends well with Hypericum
(St. John's Wort)

Body:

Valuable oil for treating wounds, scars, burns, inflammation and other injuries as it aids in tissue
regeneration.

Skin:

Good for all skin types

Precautions:

 It  is best to infuse in a light textured oil.


GRAPESEED
Vitis vinifera

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Good Source of:

Contains vitamins, minerals, protein, GLA and some vitamin E.

Texture:

Fine textured.

Characteristics:

Light green oil with a very low odor and a satiny finish

Body:

Excellent oil for those who have skin that does not absorb oils easily.

Skin:

Good for acne and oily skin.

Precautions:

Solvent extracted so many Aromatherapists prefer not to use it because of this reason.

Blend with other more nutrient rich carrier oils when using for skin care.


EVENING PRIMROSE
Oenothers blennis

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Good Source of:

Rich in vitamins and minerals

Texture:

Fine textured oil

Characteristics:

Golden yellow colour

Body:

Good for treating arthritis, asthma, breast tenderness, depression, eczema, high blood pressure, overweight, PMS. 

Skin:

Excellent oil for dry, aging or chapped skin

Precautions:

Keep away from light and heat. It is expensive and is usually blended in a small (often 10%) dilution with other carrier oils. It goes rancid quickly.


PEACH KERNEL
 

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Good Source of:

Vitamins, minerals, especially vitamin E.

Texture:

Fine

Characteristics:

Pale golden oil with a delicate sweet aroma.

Body:

 

Skin:

Good for all skin types – mainly used in beauty treatments.

Precautions:

Not applicable


SWEET ALMOND
Prunus amygdalus

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Good Source of:

Rich in minerals, vitamins and proteins. 

Texture:

A little heavier than other oils.

Characteristics:

A very pale yellow with a slight nutty aroma.

Body:

Reported to be soothing, healing, lubricating, softening, revitalizing and nourishing. 

Skin:

Good for sensitive or irritated skin

Precautions:

If used in massage may stain sheets.


WHEATGERM
Triticum vulgare

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Good Source of:

Antioxidant properties, rich in proteins, minerals, and vitamins, especially vitamin E.

Texture:

A thick heavy oil which is slightly sticky and has a strong aroma.

Characteristics:

Dark, reddish-orange

Body:

Used to treat scars and stretch marks. Also good for psoriasis and eczema.

Skin:

Good for aging skin, wrinkles.

Precautions:

 May cause sensitization in some individuals. Dilute 5-10% with other carrier oil as it can be overpowering.

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Dicken Green Mill, Greenfield Lane, Rochdale, Greater Manchester, England OL11 2LD
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